The following biography
Buy this Poster at AllPosters.com
John R. "Johnny" Cash (February 26, 1932 – September 12, 2003) (also
known as The Man In Black), was an American singer-songwriter, actor,
and author, who has been called one of the most influential musicians
of the 20th century. Although he is primarily remembered as a country
music artist, his songs and sound spanned many other genres including
rockabilly and rock and roll—especially early in his career—as well as
blues, folk, and gospel. This crossover appeal led to Cash being
inducted in the Country Music Hall of Fame, the Rock and Roll Hall of
Fame, and Gospel Music Hall of Fame. Late in his career, Cash covered
songs by several rock artists.
Cash was known for his deep, distinctive bass-baritone voice; for the
"boom-chicka-boom" sound of his Tennessee Three backing band; for his
rebelliousness, coupled with an increasingly somber and humble
demeanor; for providing free concerts inside prison walls; and for his
dark performance clothing, which earned him the nickname "The Man in Black".
He traditionally started his concerts by saying, "Hello, I'm Johnny
Cash." and usually following it up with his standard "Folsom Prison
Much of Cash's music, especially that of his later career, echoed themes of
sorrow, moral tribulation and redemption. His signature songs include "I
Walk the Line", "Folsom Prison Blues", "Ring of Fire", "Get Rhythm" and "Man in
Black". He also recorded humorous numbers, including "One Piece at a Time" and
"A Boy Named Sue"; a duet with his future wife, June Carter, called "Jackson";
as well as railroad songs including "Hey, Porter" and "Rock Island Line".
Cash, a troubled but devout Christian, has been characterized as a "lens
through which to view American contradictions and challenges." A
Biblical scholar, he penned a Christian novel titled Man in
White, and he made a spoken word recording of the entire New King James
Version of the New Testament. Even so, Cash declared that he was "the
biggest sinner of them all", and viewed himself overall as a complicated and
contradictory man. Accordingly, Cash is said to have "contained
multitudes", and has been deemed "the philosopher-prince of American country
Birth name John R. Cash
Born February 26, 1932(1932-02-26)
Kingsland, Arkansas, United States
Origin Kingsland, Arkansas, United States
Died September 12, 2003(2003-09-12) (aged 71)
Nashville, Tennessee, United States
Genres Country, rock and roll, folk, Twang, gospel, blues, rockabilly
Occupations Singer-songwriter, musician, actor
Instruments Vocals, guitar, harmonica, mandolin
Years active 1955–2003
Labels Sun, Columbia, Mercury, American, House of Cash, Legacy Recordings
Associated acts The Tennessee Three, The Highwaymen, June Carter Cash, The
Statler Brothers, The Carter Family, The Oak Ridge Boys, Area Code 615, Roy
Orbison, Jerry Lee Lewis, Carl Perkins, Bob Dylan, Tom Petty and the
Martin Acoustic Guitars
Johnny Cash was born in Kingsland, Arkansas, the fourth of seven children to
Ray Cash (May 13, 1897, Kingsland, Arkansas – December 23, 1985, Hendersonville,
Tennessee) and Carrie Cloveree Rivers (March 13, 1904, Rison, Arkansas –
March 11, 1991, Hendersonville, Tennessee). Cash was named John R. Cash
because his parents couldn't think of a name, but he went by J. R. all
throughout his childhood as a shortened version of his real name. When Cash
enlisted in the Air Force, they wouldn't let him use initials as his name, so he
began to use his legal name of John R. Cash. In 1955, when signing with Sun
Records, he took Johnny Cash as his stage name.
The Cash children were, in order: Roy, Margaret Louise, Jack, J. R., Reba,
Joanne and Tommy. His younger brother, Tommy Cash, also became a
successful country artist.
In March 1935, when Cash was three years old, the family settled in Dyess,
Arkansas. J.R. was working in cotton fields beginning at age five, singing along
with his family simultaneously while working. The family farm was flooded on at
least two occasions, which later inspired him to write the song "Five Feet High
and Rising". His family's economic and personal struggles during the Great
Depression inspired many of his songs, especially those about other people
facing similar difficulties.
Cash was very close to his older brother, Jack. In May 1944, Jack was pulled
into a whirling head saw in the mill where he worked and was almost cut in two.
He suffered for over a week before he died on May 20, 1944, at age 15. Cash
often spoke of the horrible guilt he felt over this incident. According to Cash:
The Autobiography, his father was away that morning, but he and his mother, and
Jack himself, all had premonitions or a sense of foreboding about that day,
causing his mother to urge Jack to skip work and go fishing with his brother.
Jack insisted on working, as the family needed the money. On his deathbed, Jack
said he had visions of heaven and angels. Decades later, Cash spoke of looking
forward to meeting his brother in heaven.
Cash's early memories were dominated by gospel music and radio. Taught by his
mother and a childhood friend, Cash began playing guitar and writing songs as a
young boy. In high school he sang on a local radio station; decades later he
released an album of traditional gospel songs, called My Mother's Hymn Book. He
was also significantly influenced by traditional Irish music that he heard
performed weekly by Dennis Day on the Jack Benny radio program.
Cash enlisted in the United States Air Force on July 7, 1950. After basic
training at Lackland Air Force Base and technical training at Brooks Air Force
Base, both in San Antonio, Texas, Cash was assigned to a U.S. Air Force Security
Service unit, assigned as a Morse Code Intercept Operator for Soviet Army
transmissions at Landsberg, Germany "where he created his first band named The
Landsberg Barbarians." He was the first radio operator to pick up the news
of the death of Joseph Stalin. After he was honorably discharged as a Staff
Sergeant on July 3, 1954, he returned to Texas. On August 7, 1954, one month
after his discharge, he married his first wife, Vivian Liberto, in San
On July 18, 1951, while in Air Force training, Cash met 17-year-old Vivian
Liberto at a roller skating rink in her native San Antonio. They dated for three
weeks, until Cash was deployed to Germany for a three year tour. During that
time, the couple exchanged hundreds of pages of love letters. On August 7,
1954, one month after his discharge, they were married at St. Anne's Catholic
church in San Antonio. The ceremony was performed by her uncle, Father Vincent
Liberto. They had four daughters: Rosanne, Kathy, Cindy and Tara. Cash's drug
and alcohol abuse, constant touring, and affairs with other women, and his close
relationship with future wife June Carter, led Liberto to file for divorce in
In 1968, 13 years after they first met backstage at the Grand Ole Opry, Cash
proposed to June Carter, an established country singer, during a live
performance in London, Ontario, marrying on March 1, 1968, in Franklin,
Kentucky. They had one child together, John Carter Cash (born March 3, 1970).
They continued to work together and tour for 35 years, until June Carter died in
2003. Cash died just four months later. Carter co-wrote one of Cash's biggest
hits, "Ring of Fire," with singer Merle Kilgore. She and Cash won two Grammy
awards for their duets.
Vivian Liberto claims a different version of the origins of "Ring of Fire" in I
Walked the Line: My Life with Johnny, stating that Cash gave Carter the credit
for monetary reasons.
Cash's heritage was a British Isles mix. He learned upon researching his
heritage that he was of Scottish royal descent on his father's side, traced back
to Malcolm I of Scotland. After meeting with now-dead laird Major
Michael Crichton-Stuart of Falkland, Fife, Scotland, Johnny traced the Cash
family tree to eleventh-century Fife; Cash Loch and other locations
in Fife bear the name of his family.
Cash also had English and Scots-Irish ancestry. Though he did not have American
Indian ancestry, his empathy and compassion for Native American Indians were
unabated. These feelings were expressed in several of his songs, including
"Apache Tears" and "The Ballad of Ira Hayes", and on his album, Bitter Tears:
Ballads of the American Indian. Through his maternal grandmother, Rosanna Lee
(Hurst) Rivers, Cash is distantly related to millionaire William Randolph Hearst
and socialite Patty Hearst.
Cash was a long time friend of Woody Hayes (ex Ohio State Buckeyes football
coach). The lyrics "I braided Twigs of Willows Made a String of Buckeye Beads"
from the song Flesh and Blood was for Woody.
In 1954, Cash and Vivian moved to Memphis, Tennessee, where he sold appliances
while studying to be a radio announcer. At night he played with guitarist Luther
Perkins and bassist Marshall Grant. Perkins and Grant were known as the
Tennessee Two. Cash worked up the courage to visit the Sun Records studio,
hoping to get a recording contract. After auditioning for Sam Phillips, singing
mostly gospel songs, Phillips told him that he didn't record gospel music any
longer. It was once rumored that Phillips told Cash to "go home and sin, then
come back with a song I can sell," though in a 2002 interview Cash denied that
Phillips made any such comment. Cash eventually won over the producer with
new songs delivered in his early rock'a'billy style. In 1955 Cash made his first
recordings at Sun, "Hey Porter" and "Cry! Cry! Cry!", which were released in
late June and met with reasonable success on the country hit parade.
On December 4, 1956, Elvis Presley dropped in on studio owner Sam Phillips to
pay a social visit while Carl Perkins was in the studio cutting new tracks, with
Jerry Lee Lewis backing him on piano. Cash was also in the studio and the four
started an impromptu jam session. Phillips left the tapes running and the
recordings, almost half of which were gospel songs, survived and have since been
released under the title Million Dollar Quartet.
Cash's next record, "Folsom Prison Blues", made the country Top 5, and "I Walk
the Line" became No. 1 on the country charts and entered the pop charts Top 20.
"Home of the Blues" followed, recorded in July 1957. That same year Cash became
the first Sun artist to release a long-playing album. Although he was Sun's most
consistently selling and prolific artist at that time, Cash felt constrained by
his contract with the small label partly due to the fact that Phillips wasn't
keen on Johnny recording gospel, and he was only getting a 3% royalty as opposed
to the standard rate of 5%. Presley had already left Sun, and Phillips was
focusing most of his attention and promotion on Lewis. The following year Cash
left the label to sign a lucrative offer with Columbia Records, where his single
"Don't Take Your Guns to Town" became one of his biggest hits.
In the early 1960s, Cash toured with the Carter Family, which by this time
regularly included Mother Maybelle's daughters, Anita, June and Helen. June,
whom Cash would eventually marry, later recalled admiring him from afar during
these tours. In the 1960s he appeared on Pete Seeger's short lived Rainbow
He also acted in a 1961 film entitled Five Minutes to Live, later re-released as
Door-to-door Maniac. He also wrote and sang the opening theme.
As his career was taking off in the late 1950s, Cash started drinking heavily
and became addicted to amphetamines and barbiturates. For a brief time, he
shared an apartment in Nashville with Waylon Jennings, who was heavily addicted
to amphetamines. Cash used the uppers to stay awake during tours. Friends joked
about his "nervousness" and erratic behavior, many ignoring the warning signs of
his worsening drug addiction. In a behind-the-scenes look at The Johnny Cash
Show, Cash claims to have "tried every drug there was to try."
Although in many ways spiraling out of control, Cash's frenetic creativity was
still delivering hits. His rendition of "Ring of Fire" was a crossover hit,
reaching No. 1 on the country charts and entering the Top 20 on the pop charts.
The song was written by June Carter and Merle Kilgore. The song was originally
performed by June's sister, but the signature mariachi-style horn arrangement
was provided by Cash, who said that it had come to him in a dream.
In June 1965, his truck caught fire due to an overheated wheel bearing,
triggering a forest fire that burnt several hundred acres in Los Padres National
Forest in California. When the judge asked Cash why he did it, Cash
said, "I didn't do it, my truck did, and it's dead, so you can't question
it." The fire destroyed 508 acres (206 ha), burning the foliage off three
mountains and killing 49 of the refuge's 53 endangered condors. Cash was
unrepentant: "I don't care about your damn yellow buzzards." The federal
government sued him and was awarded $125,172 ($923,127 today). Cash eventually
settled the case and paid $82,001. He said he was the only person ever sued
by the government for starting a forest fire.
Although Cash carefully cultivated a romantic outlaw image, he never served a
prison sentence. Despite landing in jail seven times for misdemeanors, each stay
lasted only a single night. His most infamous run-in with the law occurred while
on tour in 1965, when he was arrested October 4 by a narcotics squad in El Paso,
Texas. The officers suspected that he was smuggling heroin from Mexico, but it
was 688 Dexedrine capsules and 475 Equanil tablets that the singer had hidden
inside his guitar case. Because they were prescription drugs rather than illegal
narcotics, he received a suspended sentence.
Cash was later arrested on May 11, 1965, in Starkville, Mississippi, for
trespassing late at night onto private property to pick flowers. (This incident
gave the spark for the song "Starkville City Jail", which he spoke about on his
live At San Quentin prison album.)
In the mid 1960s, Cash released a number of concept albums, including Ballads Of
the True West (1965), an experimental double record mixing authentic frontier
songs with Cash's spoken narration, and Bitter Tears (1964), with songs
highlighting the plight of the Native Americans. His drug addiction was at its
worst at this point, and his destructive behavior led to a divorce from his
first wife and canceled performances.
In 1967, Cash's duet with June Carter, "Jackson", won a Grammy Award.
Johnny Cash's final arrest was in Walker County, Georgia where he was taken in
after being involved in a car accident while carrying a bag of prescription
pills. Cash attempted to bribe a local deputy, who turned the money down, and
then spent the night in a LaFayette, Georgia jail. The singer was released after
a long talk with Sheriff Ralph Jones, who warned him of his dangerous behavior
and wasted potential. Johnny credited that experience for saving his life, and
he later came back to LaFayette to play a benefit concert that attracted 12,000
people (the city population was less than 9,000 at the time) and raised $75,000
for the high school.
Cash curtailed his use of drugs for several years in 1968, after a spiritual
epiphany in the Nickajack Cave, when he attempted to commit suicide while under
the heavy influence of drugs. He descended deeper into the cave, trying to lose
himself and "just die", when he passed out on the floor. He reported to be
exhausted and feeling at the end of his rope when he felt God's presence in his
heart and managed to struggle out of the cave (despite the exhaustion) by
following a faint light and slight breeze. To him, it was his own rebirth. June,
Maybelle, and Ezra Carter moved into Cash's mansion for a month to help him
conquer his addiction. Cash proposed onstage to June at a concert at the London
Gardens in London, Ontario, Canada on February 22, 1968; the couple married a
week later (on March 1) in Franklin, Kentucky. June had agreed to marry Cash
after he had "cleaned up". He rediscovered his Christian faith, taking an
"altar call" in Evangel Temple, a small church in the Nashville area, pastored
by Rev. Jimmie Rodgers Snow, son of country music legend Hank Snow.
According to longtime friend Marshall Grant, Cash's 1968 rebirth experience did
not result in his completely stopping use of amphetamines. However, in 1970,
Cash ended all drug use for a period of seven years. Grant claims that the birth
of Cash's son, John Carter Cash, inspired Cash to end his dependence. Cash began
using amphetamines again in 1977. By 1983, he was once again addicted, and
entered the Betty Ford Clinic in Rancho Mirage, California for rehabilitation.
Cash managed to stay off drugs for several years, but by 1989, he was dependent
again and entered Nashville's Cumberland Heights Alcohol and Drug Treatment
Center. In 1992, he entered the Loma Linda Behavioural Medicine Centre in Loma
Linda, California for his final rehabilitation (several months later, his son
followed him into this facility for treatment).
Cash felt great compassion for prisoners. He began performing concerts at
various prisons starting in the late 1950s. His first ever prison concert was
held on January 1, 1958 at San Quentin State Prison. These performances led
to a pair of highly successful live albums, Johnny Cash at Folsom Prison (1968)
and Johnny Cash at San Quentin (1969).
The Folsom Prison record was introduced by a rendition of his classic "Folsom
Prison Blues", while the San Quentin record included the crossover hit single "A
Boy Named Sue", a Shel Silverstein-penned novelty song that reached No. 1 on the
country charts and No. 2 on the U.S. Top Ten pop charts. The AM versions of the
latter contained a couple of profanities which were edited out. The modern CD
versions are unedited and uncensored and thus also longer than the original
vinyl albums, though they still retain the audience reaction overdubs of the
In addition to his performances at U.S. prisons, Cash also performed at the
Österåker Prison in Sweden in 1972. The live album På Österåker ("At Österåker")
was released in 1973. Between the songs, Cash can be heard speaking Swedish,
which was greatly appreciated by the inmates.
"The Man in
From 1969 to 1971, Cash starred in his own television show, The Johnny Cash
Show, on the ABC network. The Statler Brothers opened up for him in every
episode; the Carter Family and rockabilly legend Carl Perkins were also part of
the regular show entourage. However, Cash also enjoyed booking more contemporary
performers as guests; such notables included Neil Young, Louis Armstrong, Kenny
Rogers and The First Edition (who appeared a record four times on his show),
James Taylor, Ray Charles, Eric Clapton (then leading Derek and the Dominos),
and Bob Dylan. During the same period, he contributed the title song and other
songs to the film Little Fauss and Big Halsey, which starred Robert Redford,
Michael J. Pollard, and Lauren Hutton. The title song, The Ballad of Little
Fauss and Big Halsey, was nominated for a Golden Globe award.
Cash had met with Dylan in the mid 1960s and became closer friends when they
were neighbors in the late 1960s in Woodstock, New York. Cash was enthusiastic
about reintroducing the reclusive Dylan to his audience. Cash sang a duet with
Dylan on Dylan's country album Nashville Skyline and also wrote the album's
Grammy-winning liner notes.
Another artist who received a major career boost from The Johnny Cash Show was
songwriter Kris Kristofferson, who was beginning to make a name for himself as a
singer/songwriter. During a live performance of Kristofferson's "Sunday Mornin'
Comin' Down", Cash refused to change the lyrics to suit network executives,
singing the song with its references to marijuana intact: "On a Sunday morning
sidewalk / I'm wishin', Lord, that I was stoned."
By the early 1970s, he had crystallized his public image as "The Man in Black".
He regularly performed dressed all in black, wearing a long black knee-length
coat. This outfit stood in contrast to the costumes worn by most of the major
country acts in his day: rhinestone suit and cowboy boots. In 1971, Cash wrote
the song "Man in Black", to help explain his dress code: "We're doing mighty
fine I do suppose / In our streak of lightning cars and fancy clothes / But just
so we're reminded of the ones who are held back / Up front there ought to be a
man in black."
He wore black on behalf of the poor and hungry, on behalf of "the prisoner who
has long paid for his crime", and on behalf of those who have been betrayed
by age or drugs. "And," Cash added, "with the Vietnam War as painful in my
mind as it was in most other Americans', I wore it 'in mournin' for the lives
that could have been.' ... Apart from the Vietnam War being over, I don't see
much reason to change my position ... The old are still neglected, the poor are
still poor, the young are still dying before their time, and we're not making
many moves to make things right. There's still plenty of darkness to carry
He and his band had initially worn black shirts because that was the only
matching color they had among their various outfits. He wore other colors on
stage early in his career, but he claimed to like wearing black both on and off
stage. He stated that, political reasons aside, he simply liked black as his
on-stage color. To this day, the US Navy's winter blue uniform is referred
to by sailors as "Johnny Cashes", as the uniform's shirt, tie, and trousers are
In the mid 1970s, Cash's popularity and number of hit songs began to decline. He
made commercials for Amoco, an unpopular enterprise in an era in which oil
companies made high profits while consumers suffered through high gasoline
prices and shortages. However, his autobiography (the first of two), titled Man
in Black, was published in 1975 and sold 1.3 million copies. A second, Cash: The
Autobiography, appeared in 1997. His friendship with Billy Graham led to the
production of a film about the life of Jesus, The Gospel Road, which Cash
co-wrote and narrated.
He also continued to appear on television, hosting an annual Christmas special
on CBS throughout the 1970s. Later television appearances included a role in an
episode of Columbo (Swan Song). He also appeared with his wife on an episode of
Little House on the Prairie entitled "The Collection" and gave a performance as
John Brown in the 1985 American Civil War television mini-series North and
He was friendly with every US President starting with Richard Nixon. He was
closest to Jimmy Carter, with whom he became close friends. He stated that
he found all of them personally charming, noting that this was probably
essential to getting oneself elected.
When invited to perform at the White House for the first time in 1970,
Richard Nixon's office requested that he play "Okie from Muskogee" (a satirical
Merle Haggard song about people who despised youthful drug users and war
protesters) and "Welfare Cadillac" (a Guy Drake song which denies the integrity
of welfare recipients). Cash declined to play either and instead selected other
songs, including "The Ballad of Ira Hayes" (about a brave Native American World
War II veteran who was mistreated upon his return to Arizona), and his own
compositions, "What Is Truth" and "Man in Black". Cash wrote that the reasons
for denying Nixon's song choices were not knowing them and having fairly short
notice to rehearse them, rather than any political reason. However, Cash
added, even if Nixon's office had given Cash enough time to learn and rehearse
the songs, their choice of pieces that conveyed "antihippie and antiblack"
sentiments might have backfired.
In 1980, Cash became the Country Music Hall of Fame's youngest living inductee
at age forty-eight, but during the 1980s his records failed to make a major
impact on the country charts, although he continued to tour successfully. In the
mid 1980s, he recorded and toured with Waylon Jennings, Willie Nelson, and Kris
Kristofferson as The Highwaymen, making three hit albums which were released
beginning with the originally titled "Highwaymen" in 1985, followed by
"Highwaymen 2" in 1990, and concluding with "Highwaymen - The Road Goes on
forever" in 1995.
During that period, Cash appeared in a number of television films. In 1981, he
starred in The Pride of Jesse Hallam, winning fine reviews for a film that
called attention to adult illiteracy. In the same year, Cash appeared as a "very
special guest star" in an episode of the Muppet Show. In 1983, he appeared as a
heroic sheriff in Murder in Coweta County, based on a real-life Georgia murder
case, which co-starred Andy Griffith as his nemesis. Cash had tried for years to
make the film, for which he won acclaim.
Cash relapsed into addiction after being administered painkillers for a serious
abdominal injury in 1983 caused by an unusual incident in which he was kicked
and wounded by an ostrich he kept on his farm.
At a hospital visit in 1988, this time to watch over Waylon Jennings (who was
recovering from a heart attack), Jennings suggested that Cash have himself
checked into the hospital for his own heart condition. Doctors recommended
preventive heart surgery, and Cash underwent double bypass surgery in the same
hospital. Both recovered, although Cash refused to use any prescription
painkillers, fearing a relapse into dependency. Cash later claimed that during
his operation, he had what is called a "near death experience". He said he had
visions of Heaven that were so beautiful that he was angry when he woke up
Cash's recording career and his general relationship with the Nashville
establishment were at an all-time low in the 1980s. He realized that his record
label of nearly 30 years, Columbia, was growing indifferent to him and was not
properly marketing him (he was "invisible" during that time, as he said in his
autobiography). Cash recorded an intentionally awful song to protest, a
self-parody. "Chicken in Black" was about Cash's brain being
transplanted into a chicken. Ironically, the song turned out to be a larger
commercial success than any of his other recent material. Nevertheless, he was
hoping to kill the relationship with the label before they did, and it was not
long after "Chicken in Black" that Columbia and Cash parted ways.
In 1986, Cash returned to Sun Studios in Memphis to team up with Roy Orbison,
Jerry Lee Lewis, and Carl Perkins to create the album Class of '55. Also in
1986, Cash published his only novel, Man in White, a book about Saul and his
conversion to become the Apostle Paul. He also recorded Johnny Cash Reads The
Complete New Testament in 1990.
After Columbia Records dropped Cash from his recording contract, he had a short
and unsuccessful stint with Mercury Records from 1987 to 1991 (see Johnny Cash
His career was rejuvenated in the 1990s, leading to popularity with an audience
not traditionally interested in country music. In 1991, he sang a version of
"Man in Black" for the Christian punk band One Bad Pig's album I Scream Sunday.
In 1993, he sang "The Wanderer" on U2's album Zooropa. Although no longer sought
after by major labels, he was offered a contract with producer Rick Rubin's
American Recordings label, better known for rap and hard rock.
Under Rubin's supervision, he recorded American Recordings (1994) in his living
room, accompanied only by his Martin dreadnought guitar – one of many Cash
played throughout his career. The album featured covers of contemporary
artists selected by Rubin and had much critical and commercial success, winning
a Grammy for Best Contemporary Folk Album. Cash wrote that his reception at the
1994 Glastonbury Festival was one of the highlights of his career. This was the
beginning of a decade of music industry accolades and commercial success. Cash
teamed up with Brooks & Dunn to contribute "Folsom Prison Blues" to the AIDS
benefit album Red Hot + Country produced by the Red Hot Organization. On the
same album, he performed the Bob Dylan favorite "Forever Young".
Cash and his wife appeared on a number of episodes of the television series Dr.
Quinn, Medicine Woman starring Jane Seymour. The actress thought so highly of
Cash that she later named one of her twin sons after him. He lent his voice for
a cameo role in The Simpsons episode "El Viaje Misterioso de Nuestro Jomer (The
Mysterious Voyage of Homer)," as the "Space Coyote" that guides Homer Simpson on
a spiritual quest. In 1996, Cash enlisted the accompaniment of Tom Petty and the
Heartbreakers and released Unchained, which won the Best Country Album Grammy.
Believing he did not explain enough of himself in his 1975 autobiography Man in
Black, he wrote Cash: The Autobiography in 1997.
Last years and
In 1997, Cash was diagnosed with the neurodegenerative disease Shy-Drager
syndrome, a form of multiple system atrophy. The diagnosis was later altered to
autonomic neuropathy associated with diabetes. This illness forced Cash to
curtail his touring. He was hospitalized in 1998 with severe pneumonia, which
damaged his lungs. The albums American III: Solitary Man (2000) and American IV:
The Man Comes Around (2002) contained Cash's response to his illness in the form
of songs of a slightly more somber tone than the first two American albums. The
video that was released for "Hurt", a cover of the song by Nine Inch Nails, fits
Cash's view of his past and feelings of regret. The video for the song, from
American IV, is now generally recognized as "his epitaph," and received
particular critical and popular acclaim.
June Carter Cash died on May 15, 2003, at the age of 73. June had told Cash to
keep working, so he continued to record, completing 60 more songs in the last
four months of his life, and even performed a couple of surprise shows at the
Carter Family Fold outside Bristol, Virginia. At the July 5, 2003, concert (his
last public performance), before singing "Ring of Fire", Cash read a statement
about his late wife that he had written shortly before taking the stage:
The spirit of June Carter overshadows me tonight with the love she had for me
and the love I have for her. We connect somewhere between here and heaven. She
came down for a short visit, I guess, from heaven to visit with me tonight to
give me courage and inspiration like she always has.
Cash died of complications from diabetes at approximately 2:00 a.m. CT on
September 12, 2003, while hospitalized at Baptist Hospital in Nashville - less
than four months after his wife. It was suggested that Johnny's health worsened
due to a broken heart over June's death. He was buried next to his wife
in Hendersonville Memory Gardens near his home in Hendersonville, Tennessee.
On May 24, 2005, Vivian Liberto, Cash's first wife and the mother of Rosanne
Cash and three other daughters, died from surgery to remove lung cancer at the
age of 71. It was her daughter Rosanne's 50th birthday.
In June 2005, Cash's lakeside home on Caudill Drive in Hendersonville was put up
for sale by his estate. In January 2006, the house was sold to Bee Gees vocalist
Barry Gibb and wife Linda and titled in their Florida limited liability company
for $2.3 million. The listing agent was Cash's younger brother, Tommy Cash. The
home was destroyed by fire on April 10, 2007.
One of Cash's final collaborations with producer Rick Rubin, entitled American
V: A Hundred Highways, was released posthumously on July 4, 2006. The album
debuted in the No.1 position on the Billboard Top 200 album chart for the week
ending July 22, 2006.
On February 23, 2010, three days before what would have been Cash's 78th
birthday, the Cash Family, Rick Rubin, and Lost Highway Records released his
second posthumous record, titled American VI: Ain't No Grave.
From his early days as a pioneer of rockabilly and rock and roll in the 1950s,
to his decades as an international representative of country music, to his
resurgence to fame in the 1990s as a living legend and an alternative country
icon, Cash influenced countless artists and left a large body of work. Upon his
death, Cash was revered by the greatest popular musicians of his time. His
rebellious image and often anti-authoritarian stance influenced punk
Among Cash's children, his daughter Rosanne Cash (by first wife Vivian Liberto)
and his son John Carter Cash (by June Carter Cash) are notable country-music
musicians in their own right.
Cash nurtured and defended artists on the fringes of what was acceptable in
country music even while serving as the country music establishment's most
visible symbol. At an all-star concert which aired in 1999 on TNT, a diverse
group of artists paid him tribute, including Bob Dylan, Chris Isaak, Wyclef
Jean, Norah Jones, Kris Kristofferson, Willie Nelson, Dom DeLuise and U2. Cash
himself appeared at the end and performed for the first time in more than a
year. Two tribute albums were released shortly before his death; Kindred Spirits
contains works from established artists, while Dressed in Black contains works
from many lesser-known artists.
In total, he wrote over 1,000 songs and released dozens of albums. A box set
titled Unearthed was issued posthumously. It included four CDs of unreleased
material recorded with Rubin as well as a Best of Cash on American retrospective
In recognition of his lifelong support of SOS Children's Villages, his family
invited friends and fans to donate to that charity in his memory. He had a
personal link with the SOS village in Diessen, at the Ammersee Lake in Southern
Germany, near where he was stationed as a GI, and also with the SOS village in
Barrett Town, by Montego Bay, near his holiday home in Jamaica. The Johnny
Cash Memorial Fund was founded.
In 1999, Cash received the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. In 2004, Rolling
Stone Magazine ranked Cash No.31 on their list of the 100 Greatest Artists
of All Time.
In a tribute to Cash after his death, country music singer Gary Allan included
the song "Nickajack Cave (Johnny Cash's Redemption)" on his 2005 album entitled
Tough All Over. The song chronicles Cash hitting rock bottom and subsequently
resurrecting his life and career.
The main street in Hendersonville, Tennessee, Highway 31E, is known as "Johnny
Cash Parkway"; the Johnny Cash Museum is located in the town.
On November 2–4, 2007, the Johnny Cash Flower Pickin' Festival was held in
Starkville, Mississippi. Starkville, where Cash was arrested over 40 years
earlier and held overnight at the city jail on May 11, 1965, inspired Cash to
write the song "Starkville City Jail". The festival, where he was offered a
symbolic posthumous pardon, honored Cash's life and music, and was expected to
become an annual event.
JC Unit One, Johnny Cash's private tour bus from 1980 until 2003, was put on
exhibit at the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame + Museum in 2007. The Cleveland, Ohio
museum offers public tours of the bus on a seasonal basis (it is stored during
the winter months and not exhibited during those times).
WWE Superstar The Undertaker used Cash's song "Aint No Grave" (from American VI:
Ain't No Grave) to announce his return following an absence in February, 2011,
and as his entrance music for Wrestlemania XXVII. He went on to verse WWE
Superstar Triple H. He won the match, but could not leave the stadium on his own
two feet due to circulatory problems in his hands and feet. Independent circuit
wrestlers Tyson Dux and Brodie Lee also use "God's Gonna Cut You Down" (from
American V: A Hundred Highways) as entrance music. Other professional wrestlers
who have used Cash's songs as entrance music include Austin Aries, who used his
cover of the Depeche Mode's song "Personal Jesus" (from American IV: The Man
Comes Around), and Necro Butcher, who used both "The Man Comes Around" and
"Hurt". WWE also used "Hurt" in a special video package that was aired on Monday
Night RAW in November 2005 as a tribute to Eddie Guerrero, a popular WWE
Superstar who had died of heart failure while he was still contracted with the
company. It is also noted that current WWE Superstar Ted DiBiase, Jr. is a huge
fan of Cash, as is former WWE Diva and current TNA Knockout Mickie James.
The television show "The Deadliest Catch" is using the song "Ain't No Grave" as
the theme song in many of their commercials.
The Canada Trust company used his name and images for their Johnny Cash
automatic bank machines during the late 80s and early 90s.
In 1998, country singer Mark Collie was the first to portray Cash, in the short
film, I Still Miss Someone.
In November of 2005, Walk the Line, an Academy Award-winning biopic about Cash's
life starring Joaquin Phoenix as Johnny (for which he was nominated for the 2005
Best Actor Oscar) and Reese Witherspoon as June (for which she won the 2005 Best
Actress Oscar), was released in the United States on to considerable commercial
success and critical acclaim. Both Phoenix and Witherspoon have won various
other awards for their roles, including the Golden Globe for Best Actor in a
Musical or Comedy and Best Actress in a Musical or Comedy, respectively. They
both performed their own vocals in the film, and Phoenix learned to play guitar
for his role as Cash. Phoenix received the Grammy Award for his contributions to
the soundtrack. John Carter Cash, the first child of Johnny and June, served as
an executive producer on the film.
On March 12, 2006 Ring of Fire, a jukebox musical of the Cash oeuvre, debuted on
Broadway at the Ethel Barrymore Theatre, but closed due to harsh reviews and
disappointing sales on April 30, 2006.
On April 11, 2010, Million Dollar Quartet, a musical portraying the early Sun
recording sessions involving Cash, Elvis Presley, Jerry Lee Lewis, and Carl
Perkins, debuted on Broadway. Actor Lance Guest portrayed Cash. The musical was
nominated for three awards at the 2010 Tony Awards, and won one.
1957 - Johnny Cash and His Hot and Blue Guitar
1958 - Johnny Cash Sings the Songs That Made Him Famous
1959 - The Fabulous Johnny Cash
1959 - Hymns by Johnny Cash
1959 - Songs of Our Soil
1959 - Greatest Johnny Cash
1960 - Johnny Cash Sings Hank Williams
1960 - Ride This Train
1960 - Now There Was A Song
1961 - Now, Here's Johnny Cash
1962 - Hymns from the Heart
1962 - The Sound of Johnny Cash
1962 - All Aboard the Blue Train
1963 - Blood, Sweat and Tears
1963 - Ring of Fire
1963 - The Christmas Spirit
1964 - Keep on the Sunny Side
1964 - I Walk the Line
1964 - The Original Sun Sound of Johnny Cash
1964 - Bitter Tears: Ballads of the American Indian
1965 - Orange Blossom Special
1965 - Ballads of the True West
1965 - Mean as Hell
1966 - Everybody Loves a Nut
1966 - Happiness is You
1967 - Johnny Cash & June Carter: Jackson
1967 - Johnny Cash's Greatest Hits
1967 - Carryin' on with Cash and Carter
1968 - From Sea to Shining Sea
1968 - At Folsom Prison
1968 - The Holy Land
1969 - At San Quentin
1969 - Johnny Cash
1969 - Original Golden Hits, Volume I
1969 - Original Golden Hits, Volume II
1969 - Story Songs of the Trains and Rivers
1969 - Got Rhythm
1970 - Johnny Cash Sings Folsom Prison Blues
1970 - The Blue Train
1970 - Johnny Cash Sings the Greatest Hits
1970 - Johnny Cash and June Carter Cash: Jackson
1970 - Johnny Cash: The Legend
1970 - The Walls of a Prison
1970 - Sunday Down South
1970 - Showtime
1970 - Hello, I'm Johnny Cash
1970 - The Singing Storyteller
1970 - The World of Johnny Cash
1970 - Johnny Cash Sings I Walk the Line
1970 - The Rough Cut King of Country Music
1970 - The Johnny Cash Show
1970 - I Walk the Line - Movie Soundtrack
1970 - Little Fauss and Big Halsy - Movie Soundtrack
1971 - Man in Black
1971 - Johnny Cash and Jerry Lee Lewis Sing Hank Williams
1971 - Johnny Cash: The Man, His World, His Music
1971 - The Johnny Cash Collection: Greatest Hits Volume II
1971 - Understand Your Man
1971 - Original Golden Hits, Volume III
1972 - A Thing Called Love
1972 - Give My Love to Rose
1972 - America
1972 - The Johnny Cash Songbook
1972 - Christmas: The Johnny Cash Family
1973 - The Gospel Road
1973 - Any Old Wind That Blows
1973 - Now, There Was a Song
1973 - The Fabulous Johnny Cash
1973 - Johnny Cash and His Woman
1973 - Sunday Morning Coming Down
1973 - Ballads of the American Indian
1974 - Ragged Old Flag
1974 - Five Feet High and Rising
1974 - The Junkie and the Juicehead Minus Me
1975 - Johnny Cash Sings Precious Memories
1975 - The Children's Album
1975 - John R. Cash
1975 - Johnny Cash at Osteraker Pirsion
1975 - Look at Them Beans
1975 - Strawberry Cake
1976 - One Piece at a Time
1976 - Destination Victoria Station
1977 - The Last Gunfighter Ballad
1977 - The Rambler
1978 - I Would Like to See You Again
1978 - Greatest Hits, Volume III
1978 - Gone Girl
1979 - Johnny Cash - Silver
1979 - A Believer Sings the Truth
1980 - Rockabilly Blues
1980 - Classic Christmas
1981 - The Baron
1981 - Encore
1982 - The Survivors
1982 - A Believer Sings the Truth, Volume I
1982 - The Adventures of Johnny Cash
1983 - Johnny Cash - Biggest Hits
1983 - Johnny 99
1983 - Songs of Love and Life
1984 - I Believe
1985 - Highwayman
1986 - Rainbow
1986 - Class of '55: Cash, Perkins, Orbison & Lewis
1986 - Heroes: Johnny Cash and Waylon Jennings
1986 - Believe in Him
1987 - Johnny Cash: Columbia Records 1958-1986
1987 - Johnny Cash is Coming to Town
1988 - Classic Cash
1988 - Water From the Wells of Home
1990 - Johnny Cash: Patriot
1990 - Boom Chicka Boom
1990 - Johnny Cash: The Man in Black 1954-1958
1991 - The Mystery of Life
1991 - Johnny Cash: The Man in Black 1959-1962
1991 - Come Along and Ride this Train
1992 - The Essential Johnny Cash
1994 - American Recordings
1995 - Highwaymen: The Road Goes on Forever
1996 - Unchained
1996 - Johnny Cash: The Hits
1998 - VH1 Storytellers: Johnny Cash and Willie Nelson
1998 - Johnny Cash at Folsom Prison and San Quentin
1998 - Johnny Cash: Crazy Country
1998 - Johnny Cash: Timeless Inspiration
1998 - Johnny 99
1999 - Johnny Cash: Super Hits
1999 - Johnny Cash and Carl Perkins: I Walk the Line/Little Fauss and Big Halsy
1999 - Just as I am
1999 - Rickabilly Blues
1999 - Cash on Delivery: A Tribute
1999 - The Legendary Johnny Cash
1999 - Johnny Cash and June Carter Cash: It's All in the Family
1999 - Johnny Cash at Folsom Prison
1999 - Sixteen Biggest Hits
2000 - Return to The Promised Land
2000 - Love, God and Murder
2000 - At San Quentin
2000 - Super Hits
2000 - American III: Solitary Man
2001 - Sixteen Biggest Hits: Volume II
2002 - American IV: The Man Comes Around
2003 - Unearthed [Box Set]
2004 - My Mother's Hymn Book
2005 - The Legend Of Johnny Cash
2005 - The Legend [Box Set]
2005 - The Road Goes On Forever: 10th Anniversary Edition
Johnny Cash was inducted into the Country Music Hall of Fame in 1980 and the
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1992. In 1996, he was honored with a Kennedy
Center Award and he has a Star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6320 Hollywood
Blvd. He is a member of the Songwriters Hall of Fame. Cash was one of the
initial recipients of the Library of Congress Living Legend medal in 2000. In
2002, he was honored at the Americana Awards show with a "Spirit of Americana
Free Speech Award". He shares the honor with Hank Williams Sr. for being a full
member of the three major music halls of fame: Rock and Roll Hall of Fame,
Country Music Hall of Fame, and the Songwriters Hall of Fame.
1967 — Best Country & Western Performance, Duet, Trio Or Group, "Jackson" (with
1968 — Best Album Notes, Johnny Cash At Folsom Prison
1970 — Best Album Notes, Nashville Skyline
1970 — Male Vocalist of the Year
1970 — Best Country Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal, "If I Were A
Carpenter", with June Carter Cash
1987 — Best Spoken Word or Non-musical Album, Interviews From the Class of '55
Recording Sessions, with Carl Perkins, Chips Moman, Jerry Lee Lewis, Johnny
Cash, Ricky Nelson, Roy Orbison and Sam Phillips
1991 — Living Legend Award
1994 — Best Folk Album, American Recordings
1998 — Best Country Album, Unchained
1999 — Lifetime Achievement
2000 — Best Country Male Vocal, "Solitary Man"
2002 — Best Country Album, Timeless: Hank Williams Tribute (Cash contributed a
cover of "I Dreamed About Mama Last Night")
2003 — Best Country Male Vocal, "Give My Love To Rose"
2003 — Best Short Form Video, "Hurt", with Mark Romanek
2004 — Best Short Form Video - "Hurt"
2006 — Best Boxed or Special Limited Edition Package - "The Legend"
2008 — Best Short Form Video - "God's Gonna Cut You Down"
Graeme Thomson The Resurrection of Johnny Cash: Hurt, Redemption, and American
Recordings Jawbone Press ISBN 978-1906002367
1.^ Über Pro Audio LLC (2009). Johnny Cash—Guitars and Equipment. Retrieved on
May 15, 2009.
2.^ a b c Last.fm (2010). Johnny Cash & June Carter. Retrieved January 20, 2010.
3.^ Eugene Register-Guard (2003, September 13). The Man in Black: Legendary
Johnny Cash dead at 71. Retrieved on October 20, 2009.
4.^ a b c Pareles J (1994). "Pop Review: Johnny Cash, austerely direct from deep
within". The New York Times. Retrieved March 20, 2010.
5.^ Although Cash's voice type endured over the years, his timbre changed
noticeably: "Through a recording career that stretche[d] back to 1955", Pareles
writes, Cash's "bass-baritone voice [went] from gravelly to grave".
6.^ Urbanski D (2003). The man comes around: The spiritual journey of Johnny
Cash. Lake Mary, FL: Relevant Media, p. xiv.
7.^ Dickie M (2002). "Hard talk from the God-fearin, pro-metal man in Black". In
M Streissguth (Ed.), Ring of fire: The Johnny Cash reader. Cambridge, MA: Da
Capo, pp. 201–205. Original work published 1987.
8.^ Streissguth M (2006). Johnny Cash: The biography. Philadelphia: Da Capo, p.
9.^ Fox JA (October 17, 2005). "The Boston Herald: Hard time's never a
'circus'". Baylor University. Retrieved March 22, 2010.
10.^ Streissguth M (2005). Johnny Cash at Folsom Prison: The making of a
masterpiece. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo.
11.^ For Cash, black stage attire was a "symbol of rebellion—against a stagnant
status quo, against ... hypocritical houses of God, against people whose minds
are closed to others' ideas"; Cash J; Carr P (2003). Cash: The Autobiography.
San Francisco: HarperCollins, p. 64.
12.^ Schultz B (2000, July 1). "Classic Tracks: Johnny Cash's 'Folsom Prison
Blues'". Mix. Retrieved March 22, 2010. Schultz refers to this phrase as Cash's
"trademark greeting", and places his utterance of this line, on Cash's At Folsom
Prison, album "among the most electrifying [seconds] in the history of concert
13.^ For additional quotations by Johnny Cash, consult the Johnny Cash page at
14.^ Mulligan J (2010, February 24). "Johnny Cash: American VI: Ain't No Grave".
entertainment.ie. Retrieved March 22, 2010.
15.^ For discussion of, and lyrics to, Cash's songs, see Cusic D (Ed.) (2004).
Johnny Cash: The songs. New York: Thunder's Mouth.
16.^ Clapp R (2008). Johnny Cash and the great American contradiction:
Christianity and the battle for the soul of a nation. Louisville, KY:
Westminster John Knox, p. xvi.
17.^ Urbanski (2003).
18.^ Clapp (2008), p. xviii.
19.^ Other appraisals of Cash's iconic value have been even bolder. Clapp (2008)
writes: "Very few figures in recent history are seen as more representative of
American identity as Cash ... His has often been suggested as the face that
should be added to the select pantheon on Mt. Rushmore", p. xvi.
20.^ See also Miller S (2003). Johnny Cash: The life of an American icon.
London: Omnibus, p. 227.
21.^ Stoudt C (June 9, 2009). "Review: 'Ring of Fire' at La Mirada Theatre". The
Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 20, 2010.
22.^ Public Radio Exchange (2010). "Johnny Cash: Amazing Grace" Retrieved
January 20, 2010.
23.^ Cash J (2008). Man in white: A novel about the Apostle Paul. Nashville:
24.^ BBC News (2003). Obituary: Johnny Cash. Retrieved January 20, 2010.
25.^ Rivkin D (Producer) (2007). Johnny Cash reading the complete New Testament
(Deluxe Ed.). Audio recording. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.
26.^ Morris E (December 24, 2008). "Johnny Cash's reading of the New Testament
now on DVD". Country Music Television. Retrieved January 20, 2010.
27.^ Urbanski (2003), pp. xx–xxi.
28.^ For example, Urbanski (2003, p. 39) notes that Cash's habit of performing
in black attire began in a church. In the following paragraph, Urbanski (pp.
39–40) quotes Cash (cf. Cash & Carr, 2003, p. 64) as indicating that this habit
was partially reflective of Cash's rebellion "against our hypocritical houses of
29.^ Urbanski D (2010). "Johnny Cash's complicated faith: Unwrapping the enigma
of the Man in Black". Relevant Magazine. Retrieved March 22, 2010. According to
Urbanski, Cash's self-perception was accurate: "He never intended to be
categorized or pigeonholed", and indeed he amassed a "cluster of enigmas" which
"was so impenetrably deep that even those closest to him never got to see every
part of him".
30.^ Huss J; Werther D (Eds.) (2008). Johnny Cash and philosophy: The burning
ring of truth. Chicago: Open Court.
31.^ Open Court Publishing Company (2007). Johnny Cash and Philosophy. Retrieved
March 22, 2010.
32.^ Miller (2003), p. 341.
33.^ Ray Cash at findagrave.com
34.^ Carrie Cash at findagrave.com
35.^ Streissguth (2005), p. 11.
36.^ "Cash, Johnny". Oxford Music Online. May 18, 2010.
37.^ Johnny Cash's Funeral. Johnny and June Carter Cash Memorial Website.
Retrieved on January 16, 2009.
38.^ Reba Cash Hancock. Harpeth Family Funeral Services. Retrieved on January
39.^ a b c d e f g h i Cash, Johnny. Cash: The Autobiography.
40.^ Jack D. Cash at findagrave.com
41.^ Gross, Terry. All I Did Was Ask: Conversations with Writers, Actors,
Musicians, and Artists.
42.^ Billy Abbott. "Johnny Cash - February 26, 1932 - September 12, 2003".
Southernmusic.net. http://www.southernmusic.net/johnnycash.html. Retrieved
43.^ Malone, Bill, and Judith McCulloh. Stars of Country Music. Chicago: 1975.
44.^ Miller (2003), p.40
45.^ Berkowitz, Kenny (June 2001). "No Regrets Johnny Cash, the man in black, is
back at the top of his game". Acoustic Guitar (102).
http://www.acousticguitar.com/issues/ag102/featureA102.shtml. Retrieved June 28,
46.^ a b Turner, Steve. (2004) The Man Called Cash: The Life, Love, and Faith of
an American Legend. W Publishing Group, pp. 43–44.
47.^ Turner, Steve. (2004) The Man Called Cash: The Life, Love, and Faith of an
American Legend. W Publishing Group, pp. 116–117.
48.^ Sweeting, Adam (2003-09-12). Obituary: Johnny Cash. The Guardian. Retrieved
on January 26, 2009.
49.^ Liberto, I Walked the Line: My Life with Johnny, p. 294.
50.^ Millar, Anna. June 4, 2006.Celtic connection as Cash walks the line in
Fife. Scotland on Sunday. Scotsman.com. Retrieved April 12, 2011.
51.^ Cash, Roseanne (2010). Composed a memoir. Viking Press/Penguin Group. ISBN
52.^ Manzoor, Sarfraz (Sunday February 7, 2010).Scottish roots of Johnny Cash,
the man in black tartan.Guardian.uk.co, The Observer. Retrieved April 12, 2011.
53.^ a b Miller, Stephen (2003). Johnny Cash: The Life of an American Icon.
Omnibus. ISBN 0-7119-9626-1.
54.^ Dalton, Stephanie. January 15, 2006. "Walking the line back in time."
Scotland on Sunday Scotsman.com. Retrieved June 28, 2007.
55.^ Cash, John R. with Patrick Carr. (1997) Johnny Cash, the Autobiography.
Harper Collins. p. 3.
56.^ The Man in Black's Musical Journey Continues. Retrieved February 9, 2010.
57.^ "Pete Seeger's Rainbow Quest"
58.^ "Major brush fire." Los Angeles Times, June 28, 1965, p. 1.
59.^ "Control of Brush Fire Near; 700 Acres Burned." Los Angeles Times, June 29,
1965, p. 27.
60.^ Williford, Stanley and Howard Hertel. "Singer Johnny Cash Pays $82,000 to
U.S. in Fire Case." Los Angeles Times, Jul 3, 1969, p. A3.
61.^ Rome News Tribune, Aug 14, 1970
62.^ Zwonitzer, Mark (2002). Will You Miss Me When I'm Gone, The Carter Family
and Their Legacy in American Music. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0684857634.
63.^ Grant, Marshall (2005). I Was There When It Happened – My Life With Johnny
Cash. Cumberland House. ISBN 1581825102.
64.^ Cash, John Carter (2007). Anchored In Love. Thomas Nelson. ISBN 0849901871.
65.^ Cash In Treatment, Orlando Sentinel, November 26, 1989
66.^ "Inmate Merle Haggard hears Johnny Cash play San Quentin State Prison",
67.^ The Best of the Johnny Cash TV Show 1969–1971, Disc 1 (of 2), Reverse Angle
68.^ a b c Cash & Carr (1997), pp. 85–86.
69.^ The good, bad and ugly of proposed uniforms. Navy Times. October 4, 2004.
70.^ 17 April 1970: RN Welcomes The Man In Black to the White House Nixon
Foundation blog. April 17, 2011.
71.^ Cash & Carr (2003), p. 212.
72.^ Johnny Cash: The Rebel.
73.^ Fretbase, The Guitars of Johnny Cash.
74.^ Rolling Stone Magazine, The Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll, 2004
(bibliographic information is needed for this reference).
75.^ December 30, 2011 (2003-11-24). "Death from a Broken Heart, on".
76.^ "Johnny Cash Dead at Age 71". Countrymusic.about.com. 2003-09-12.
77.^ Rosanne Cash, liner notes for Black Cadillac.
78.^ "Fire destroys Johnny Cash house". BBC News. April 11, 2007.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/6543503.stm. Retrieved September 29,
79.^ The original punk rocker BY JIM DeROGATIS Pop Music Critic, September 14,
2003. Retrieved February 9, 2010.
80.^ Johnny Cash Made the Most Punk-Rock Album Ever. In 1969. by Matt Cibula,
September 15, 2003. Retrieved February 9, 2010.
81.^ Johnny Cash profile at SOS Children's Villages.
82.^ Johnny Cash profile at SOS Children's Villages - USA.
83.^ Kristofferson, Kris. "31 Johnny Cash". Rolling Stone.
December 31, 2007.
84.^ "The Immortals: The First Fifty". Rolling Stone.
Retrieved December 31, 2007.
85.^ "Mississippi town to honor the 'Man in Black'". MSNBC.
http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/20611738/. Retrieved December 31, 2007.
86.^ "RHOF Inductees with Certificates". Rockabilly Hall of Fame.
http://www.rockabillyhall.com/Certificates.html. Retrieved December 31, 2007.
87.^ Lifetime Honors – National Medal of Arts
88.^ "Johnny Cash". Hit Parade Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on
January 6, 2008.
Retrieved December 31, 2007.
D'Ambrosio, Antonino (2009). A Heartbeat and A Guitar: Johnny Cash and the
Making of Bitter Tears. With Original Art by Shepard Fairey and Photos by Jim
Marshall. Perseus Books/Nation Books ISBN 9781568584072
Gross, Terry (2006). All I Did Was Ask: Conversations with Writers, Actors,
Musicians, and Artists. Hyperion. ISBN 1-4013-0010-3.
Millier, Bill. (retrieved September 7, 2004). Johnny Cash Awards. JohnnyCash.com.
Miller, Stephen (2003). Johnny Cash: The Life of an American Icon. Omnibus. ISBN
Streissguth, Michael. Johnny Cash at Folsom Prison: The Making of a Masterpiece,
Da Capo Press (2004). ISBN 0-306-81338-6.
Urbanski, Dave. The Man Comes Around: The Spiritual Journey of Johnny Cash. New
York: Relevant Books. ISBN 0-9729276-7-0.
Cash, Johnny; Patrick Carr (1997). Cash: The Autobiography. Harper Collins. ISBN
Cash, Johnny. May 18, 2010. [clarification needed]
Turner, Steve. The Man Called Cash: The Life, Love, and Faith of an American
Legend. Nashville, W Publishing Group, 2004. (The Authorized Biography).
Thomson, Liz. Cash, Johnny. www.oxfordmusiconline.com.
Retrieved May 18, 2010.
Holmes, Cynthia S. (January, 2004), Remembering H. Dale Jackson, Connect:
Newsletter of the CBF of Missouri, p. 2
Cash, Johnny. Man in Black: His Own Story in His Own Words. Grand Rapids:
Zondervan, 1975. ISBN 99924-31-58-X.
Cash, Johnny, with Patrick Carr. Cash: The Autobiography. New York: Harper
Collins, 1997. ISBN 0-06-101357-9.
Cash, Johnny, with June Carter Cash. Love liner notes. New York: Sony, 2000.
Cash, Johnny, The Man in White, 1986.
above biography has been copied in part or in whole
from an article on
"The Free Encyclopedia." It has been modified under
the GNU Free Document License Section 5 in the
following manner: (1) All links within the article
have been removed, including text links such as
"[#]"; (2) The "[Edit]" text and link have been
removed [if you would like to update the article,
you may do so from the original page]; (3) the table
of Contents links and text have been removed; and
(4) all of the sections of the original article have
not been copied. All of the above text is available
under the terms of the
GNU Free Document License.
URL of Original Article:
Date Article Copied:
will try to replace this article with an original
biography in the near future, but we hope this will
be of help to our visitors in the mean time.