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Common misspelling: Judie Garland; Judy Garlan; Judy Garlind


Given Name

Date of Birth

Birth Place

Frances Ethel Gumm

b. June 10, 1922

d. June 22, 1969

Grand Rapids, Minnesota

Table of Contents

Biography News Websites Discography Filmography Books Posters Other Items


The following biography is from Wikipedia.org “The Free Encyclopedia.”


Judy Garland (born Frances Ethel Gumm; June 10, 1922 – June 22, 1969) was an American film actress considered by many to be one of the greatest singing stars of Hollywood's Golden Era of musical film. Garland's singing voice had a natural vibrato, which she was able to maintain at extremely low volume. The effects which she was able to project enabled her to convey a wide range of emotion when she interpreted a song. The American Film Institute named Garland among the Greatest Female Stars of All Time, ranking at No. 8.




Birth name Frances Ethel Gumm

Born June 10, 1922

Grand Rapids, Minnesota

Died June 22, 1969

Chelsea, London






 Childhood and early life

Born in Grand Rapids, Minnesota, Frances Ethel Gumm was the youngest child of former vaudevillians Frank Gumm and Ethel Milne. Named for both her parents and baptized at the local Episcopal church, "Baby" (as Frances was nicknamed) shared the family's flair for song and dance. "Baby" Gumm's first professional appearance came at the age of two-and-a-half, when she joined her two older sisters, Mary Jane ("Suzy") and Dorothy Virginia ("Jimmie"), on stage for a chorus of Jingle Bells in a Christmas show at her father's theater on December 26, 1924. In 1934, the sisters, who were touring the vaudeville circuit as "The Gumm Sisters", performed in Chicago at the Oriental Theater with George Jessel. He encouraged the group to choose a more appealing name after "Gumm" received small laughter from the audience. They settled on "The Garland Sisters", and young Frances soon afterward picked the name "Judy" after a popular song of the day by Hoagy Carmichael. A rumor persists that Jessel came up with the last name Garland after Carole Lombard's character Lily Garland in the film Twentieth Century, which was playing at the Oriental; another rumor is that the sisters came up with the surname Garland after drama critic Robert Garland (reference: Judy: Beyond the Rainbow, A&E/Biography television special), though Lorna Luft stated in her book Me and My Shadows that her mother chose the name when Jessel announced that the trio of singers "looked prettier than a garland of flowers".


In 1935, at the age of 13, Garland was signed to a contract with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, supposedly without a screen test. (In fact, she actually had done a test for the studio several months earlier.) Garland's first notice by studio executives came after singing an arrangement of "You Made Me Love You" to Clark Gable at a birthday party held by the studio for the King of Hollywood. Her rendition proved so popular that MGM placed Garland and the song in their all-star extravaganza Broadway Melody of 1938 (1937).


After a string of minor roles, at the age of 16 she landed the role of "Dorothy" in the MGM film The Wizard of Oz (1939), and has been associated ever since with the song "Over the Rainbow." She received an honorary Academy Award for her performance in the film. After Oz, Garland became one of MGM's most bankable stars, proving particularly popular when teamed with her longtime friend Mickey Rooney in a string of "let's put on a show!" musicals. The duo first appeared together in the 1937 b-movie Thoroughbreds Don't Cry. They became a sensation and they teamed up again in Love Finds Andy Hardy, and then soon after in Babes in Arms. Garland eventually would star with Rooney in nine films.


To keep up with the frantic pace of making one movie after another, Garland, Rooney, and other young performers were constantly given amphetamines, as well as barbiturates, to take before bedtime (reference: "Judy Garland: By Myself" in the American Masters series on PBS). For Garland, this constant dose of drugs would lead to addiction and a lifelong struggle, as well as her eventual demise. In her later life, she would resent the hectic work and she felt that her youth was stolen from her by MGM. She was plagued with self-doubt throughout her life and needed constant reassurance that she was talented, despite her ability to fill concert halls worldwide with fans eager to hear her, high critical praise, and several awards.



 Movie star

Her physical appearance created a dilemma for MGM, and she felt unattractive. At barely 5 feet tall, Garland’s girl next door or 'cute' looks did not exemplify the sexy or glamorous looks required for leading ladies of the time and her appearance caused her anxiety. As she aged, Garland went through a transformation process throughout her film career. During her early years at the studio, she was photographed and dressed in plain garments, or frilly juvenile gowns and costumes to match the girl next door image that was created for her and also to disguise her budding figure. In 1940, she starred in 3 films, Andy Hardy Meets a Debutante, Strike Up the Band and at the age of 18 was given her first adult role in the film Little Nellie Kelly playing a dual role of mother and daughter. The project was purchased from George M. Cohan as a vehicle for Garland to assess both her audience appeal and her physical appearance. The role was a challenge for the young actress requiring the use of an accent, her first adult kiss and her first and subsequently only death scene. The success of these 3 films and a further 3 films in 1941 secured her position at MGM as a major property. In 1942 and noticeably thinner, she was given the lead in For Me and My Gal also starring Gene Kelly in his first screen appearnace. She was top billed over the credits for the first time. She made the direct transition from teenage star to an adult actress. By 1943 at the age of 21, she was finally given the "glamour treatment" in Presenting Lily Mars, in which she was dressed in "grown-up" gowns and her lightened hair was pulled-up in a stylish fashion. Years later when reflecting on her mother's film image, Liza Minnelli, stated that in her opinion; her mother looked the most beautiful in this film. However, no matter how glamorous or beautiful she appeared on screen or in photographs, she was never confident in her appearance and never escaped the "girl next door" image that had been created for her. By 1944, Garland was given a new make-up artist specifically requested by Vincente Minnelli. Dorothy (Dottie) Ponedel refined Judy's appearance in several ways, included extending and reshaping her eyebrows, tweezing her hairline, modifying her lipline and getting rid of the unnecessary nose discs. Judy appreciated the results so much that 'Dottie' was written into her contract for all her remaining pictures at MGM. Interestingly, MGM's attempts to "glamorize" Garland stopped in 1948 at which time her appearance was natural yet refined. Publicly, Garland stated that she was never quite happy with her appearance on screen except in Meet Me in St. Louis (1944) and The Clock (1945). The Clock was the first and only film where Judy never sang a note.


One of Garland's most successful films for MGM is the 1944 classic Meet Me in St. Louis, in which she introduced three standards: "The Trolley Song", "The Boy Next Door", and "Have Yourself a Merry Little Christmas". The Clock (1945) was her first straight dramatic film; she starred opposite Robert Walker. Though the film was critically praised and did earn a profit, most movie fans expected her to sing. Therefore, it would be many years before she acted again in a non-singing dramatic role. Nevertheless, The Clock has become increasingly popular among Garland fans and is considered to be a true war/romance classic.


Garland's other famous films of the 1940s include The Harvey Girls (1946) (in which she introduced "On the Atchison, Topeka and the Santa Fe" which was the Academy Award winning song for that year,), The Pirate and Easter Parade (both 1948).


In September 1945, Garland married MGM director Vincente Minnelli and, in March 1946, Garland gave birth to a daughter, Liza. Soon afterward, the hectic work schedule and the exhausting motion picture business began to take its toll on Garland as she returned to MGM, which led to several days' absence from the studio over the next four years as well as numerous incidents; in April 1947, during filming for The Pirate, Garland suffered a nervous breakdown and had to be led away from the set.[1] After this, Garland had a number of other breakdowns that would lead to her departure from MGM; it would also reveal the emotional turmoil that Garland suffered. Two months later, Garland made her first suicide attempt.



 Renewed stardom on the stage and television

In 1951, Garland divorced Vincente Minnelli and married Sid Luft, her manager at the time. In 1952, a daughter, Lorna Luft, was born. 1951 was a mile-stone year for Garland and established what was to become her performing style for the rest of her life. She turned to live concert appearances and took her new act to Britain, where she played to sold out audiences throughout England, Scotland, and Ireland [1]. This first European tour was an enormous success, and she appeared at the famous London Palladium for the first time. Shortly afterwards, Garland appeared at New York's Palace Theatre, also for the first time, in 1951 for which she received a special Tony Award. She also appeared on various television specials during the early 50s.


In 1954, she made a notable cinema comeback for Warner Bros. with A Star is Born, and was nominated for Best Actress. This film is considered by many critics to be her finest performance. Directed by George Cukor and produced by her husband Sid Luft (through Garland and Luft's Transcona Enterprises), it was a large undertaking in which Garland fully immersed herself. It was also a physically demanding role that had Garland on edge and, for the most part, constantly worried. Upon its release, the film was cut by almost 30 minutes amid fears it was too long.


In the run-up to the 1955 Academy Awards, Garland was believed to be the most likely winner for Best Actress. She could not attend the ceremony because she had just given birth to her son Joey Luft; a television crew entered Garland's room with cameras and wires, in the hope that Garland would win the Best Actress award, to televise Garland's award speech. However, the Oscar went to Grace Kelly for The Country Girl (1954). Many fans hold that Garland was "robbed" of her Oscar, and should have won the award (Groucho Marx sent her a famous telegram after the awards, stating that it was "the biggest robbery since Brinks"). However she did win the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in a Musical that year.


Garland and Luft's original contract with Warner Bros. ensured a series of films to be made; however, due to the editing of the film, Garland and Luft made no more films for the studio.


Although she made no other films in the 1950s, Garland's films after A Star is Born include Judgment at Nuremberg (1961) (for which she was nominated for Best Actress in a Supporting Role), the animated feature, Gay Purr-ee (1962), A Child Is Waiting (1963), co-starring Burt Lancaster, and her final film, I Could Go On Singing (1963), co-starring Dirk Bogarde, which mirrored her own life in the story of a world famous singing star.


In November 1959, Garland was diagnosed with acute hepatitis and told that she "would never sing again" [2]. However, Garland successfully recovered and returned to both films and television; her concert appearance at Carnegie Hall on April 23, 1961, was a considerable highlight, called by many the "greatest single night in show business." The 2-record live recording made of the concert was a best-seller (certified gold), charting for 73 weeks on Billboard (13 weeks at number one), and won five Grammy Awards including Album of the Year and Best Female Vocal of the Year. The album has never been out of print.


After hugely successful television specials and guest appearances in the early 1960s, CBS made a $24 million offer to Garland for a weekly television series of her own, The Judy Garland Show, which was deemed at the time in the press to be "the biggest talent deal in TV history." Her television series was critically praised, but, for a variety of reasons -- including the fact it was placed in the same time slot opposite Bonanza on NBC -- the show lasted only one season, and went off the air in 1964, after 26 episodes. Despite this, the show won four Emmy nominations and included amazing performances by Garland as well as some of her best vocal work. The demise of the series was personally and financially devastating for Garland, and she never fully recovered from its failure.



 Her final years

With the demise of her television series, Garland returned to the stage and made various television appearances. Most notably, she performed at the London Palladium with her then 17-year-old daughter Liza Minnelli in November of 1964. The concert, which was also filmed for television, was one of Garland's final appearances at the venue. Garland, having divorced Sid Luft, continued to make concert appearances and also appeared on television specials. She made guest appearances on the The Ed Sullivan Show, The Tonight Show, The Hollywood Palace, The Merv Griffin Show (of which she guest-hosted an episode) and many others.


A 1964 tour of Australia and New Zealand was largely disastrous. Although the reviews for the Sydney concert were positive [3], she could no longer hide the effects of alcohol and medication abuse. She forgot the lyrics to songs, and slurred those lines which she remembered, it was obvious she was ill or under the influence. The Melbourne performance ended after only twenty minutes and created significant bad press for Garland [4].


In February 1967, Garland was signed to appear as "Helen Lawson" in Valley of the Dolls for 20th Century Fox. The character of "Neely O'Hara" in the book by Jacqueline Susann, and subsequent movie, was rumored to have been based on Garland, though the role in the film was played by Patty Duke. During the filming, Garland missed rehearsals and was fired the next month. She was replaced by Susan Hayward. She did record one song for the film, "I'll Plant My Own Tree," which has never been officially released, although it is available on several bootlegs. There is also surviving footage of her wardrobe tests.


Barbara Parkins, one of the film's stars, commented in the newly released DVD of Valley of the Dolls that she believed Garland was frightened by the thought of actually being the aging star she was supposed to play, and that she "freaked" when she realized the similarities between the storyline and her own life.


Returning to the stage, Garland made her last appearances at New York's Palace Theatre in July, a sixteen-show tour, performing with her children Lorna and Joey Luft. Garland wore a sequined pants-suit onstage for this tour, which was part of the original wardrobe for her character in Valley of the Dolls.


By early 1969, Garland's health had deteriorated rapidly. She performed in London, at the Talk of the Town nightclub for a five-week run, and made her last concert appearance in Copenhagen during March 1969.




The shortcomings of Garland's childhood years became more apparent as she struggled to overcome various personal problems, including weight gain, weight loss, and serious drug addiction. She was found dead in her bathroom by her last husband, Mickey Deans, on June 22, 1969. The stated exact cause of death by coroner Gavin Thursdon was accidental overdose of barbiturates; pathologist Dr. R. Pocock found 4.9 mg of Seconal [5] in Garland's blood. Garland had turned 47 just over a week prior to her death. She was residing in a rented flat with her husband in the Chelsea section of London at the time of her death.


At Garland's funeral, The Wizard of Oz co-star Ray Bolger commented: "She just plain wore out." [6] Garland is interred in Ferncliff Cemetery, in Hartsdale, New York [7].




Judy Garland’s family tree can be traced back to the early colonization of the United States (on both her paternal and maternal family lines).


Her earliest paternal ancestor was George Marable (1631 - 1683), who traveled to Virginia from Kent, England, in (or before) 1652 and was one of the first colonists settling in what is now Jamestown, Virginia. The Marable families [8] of the southern United States all derived from the aforementioned George Marable.


By the time of the Civil War, the Marable family of Jamestown, Virginia, had spread across the South. Marables are found in the rosters of units from at least nine of the Confederate States. In Virginia, Edward W. Marable of the Charles City Southern Guard served aboard the Confederate ship Patrick Henry during the engagement of the Merrimac with the Federal fleet at Hampton Roads. John H. Marable of the 13th Virginia Cavalry served as a courier for Gen. J. E. B. Stuart.


Marables have also been found in units from Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi, and among the dead at Gettysburg. The Marable family were wealthy southern aristocracy and as such were slave owners. Today the majority of those bearing the name Marable are descended from emancipated slaves not George Marable.


It is from Benjamin Marable (1710 - 1773), who traveled to Tennessee, that the Gumm family is descended. The Gumm name can also be found in the registers of soldiers who fought for the Confederacy throughout Rutherford County, Tennessee.


Garland’s father was Francis Avent Gumm, the fourth of six children born in Murfreesboro, Tennessee on March 20, 1886. He died on November 17, 1935, in Los Angeles, California. His parents were William Tecumseh Gumm (1854 - 1906) and Elizabeth Clemmie Baugh (1857 - 1895). The Gumm family was a mixture of English, Irish, Scottish, French Hugenot and German.


Frank Gumm married Ethel Marion Milne [9], who was born on November 17, 1893 in Michigamme, Michigan. She died January 5, 1953 in Texas. Ethel was the eldest of eight children born to Eva Fitzpatrick (born on January 4, 1865 in Messina, New York) and John Milne (born October 15, 1865 in Ontario Canada). His parents were Charles Milne (born in 1829 in Arbroath Scotland) and Mary Kelso (born 1837 in Kilmarnock Scotland).


Eva Fitzpatrick-Milne was the daughter of Hugh Fitzpatrick (1838 - 1908), whose family arrived in the United States from Smithtown, County Meath, Ireland in the 1770s and Mary-Elizabeth Harriot (born December 23, 1841 in Dublin, Ireland). Mary, one of thousands of orphans as a result of the Irish Famine, was raised in a Dublin convent;[2] . In 1858, at the age of 17, she married Hugh Fitzpatrick an Irish-American who was visiting Dublin and that same year the newlyweds sailed to America . They had 10 children, Mary died on January 24, 1908, in Detroit, Michigan. Although Irish, the Fitzpatrick family fought on the side of the British during the Revolutionary War and as a result, Peter Fitzpatrick (1752 - 1812) son of Patrick Fitzpatrick (1727) was sentenced to be hung as a spy, but this was not carried out and the family moved across the border into Canada;[3] (reference: The Golden Years by Rita Piro).


Eva Fitzpatrick-Milne lived with Judy until her death on 17 October 1949 at the age of 84. She is buried with Garland’s father in Forest Lawn Cemetery, Glendale CA. Garland’s mother is also buried nearby in a separate grave.


A family link between Garland and the 18th United States President Ulysses S Grant has often been incorrectly stated. Garland’s great, great grandfather Hugh Fitzpatrick (1809 - 1878) was married twice; his second wife was Catherine Grant, a first cousin of Grant. However, Garland is descended from a son, also named Hugh (born 1838), from his first wife (Margaret Ross, 1807 - 1845), therefore there is no blood link.


When commenting on her ancestry, Garland described herself as Irish and Scottish. In her autobiography Lorna Luft states that her family had an "Irish charm" and that "often the family survived on charm alone".[4]





 Song of the Century

Garland's rendition of "Over the Rainbow" was placed as number 1 in the Songs of the Century project, by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) and the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA). According to RIAA, the list was put together for young people to "help further appreciation for the music development process, including songwriting, musicianship, recording, performing, distributing and the development of distribution and cultural values."


The song was also chosen by the American Film Institute as the #1 movie song of all time, as part of their "100 Years...100 Songs" list. Four more Garland songs were also featured on the list: "Have Yourself A Merry Little Christmas" from Meet Me In St. Louis (#76), "Get Happy" from Summer Stock (#61), "The Trolley Song," also from Meet Me In St. Louis (#26), and "The Man That Got Away" from A Star Is Born (#11).



 Grammy Hall of Fame Awards

Several of Garland's many recordings have been inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame [10]. Some of these include:


Dear Mr. Gable (You Made Me Love You) (single) - inducted 1998

Judy at Carnegie Hall (album) - inducted 1998

Meet Me In St. Louis - Soundtrack (album) - inducted 2005

Over the Rainbow (single) - inducted 1981

The Wizard of Oz - Musical and Dramatic Selections Recorded Directly from the Soundtrack of MGM's Technicolor Film (album) - inducted 2006


 Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award

Garland was awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 1998.



 Judy Garland Day

For 31 years, her home state of Minnesota has held a yearlyJudy Garland Festival around June 22, in memory of her legacy. The ongoing tribute festival is held at Garland's birthplace of Grand Rapids. At the 2006 occasion, Minnesota proclaimed June 22, as a temporary Minnesota "Judy Garland Day" recognizing and honoring Judy Garland for her dedication and exemplary achievements and to salute her as an outstanding citizen and patron of the Arts. In June of 2006, the festival was visited by her children Lorna and Joey Luft and a decision to change the Festival dates to a permanent Garland Festival date change: Fri.-Sun. nearest Judy's birthday. 2007 dates are


June 8, 9 & 10" for more information— http://judygarlandmuseum.com/


 2006 US Postage Stamp Honor

The United States Postal Service issued a commemorative postage stamp honoring Garland in the Legends of Hollywood series.[5] The stamp depicts Garland from the "A Star is Born" era and was painted by illustrator, Tim O'Brien. The first day ceremony for this stamp was on June 10, 2006, on what would have been Garland's 84th birthday, in New York City with nationwide availability on June 12. The ceremony at New York's Carnegie Hall featured her daughter, Lorna Luft, Turner Classic Movies host Robert Osborne, Dick Cavett, Michael Feinstein, Rufus Wainwright, Terrence McNally, and Garland's MGM colleagues Jane Powell and Margaret O'Brien. Garland's daughter Liza Minnelli taped a special greeting exclusively for the ceremony.



 1989 US Postage Stamp Honor

In 1989, the United States Postal Service issued a series of Classic Films postage stamps, to honor the 50th anniversary of films made in the United States in 1939 that were nominated for Academy Awards. These 25˘ stamps featured four films: The Wizard of Oz, Gone With the Wind, Stagecoach, and Beau Geste. The stamp featuring Garland as "Dorothy", with her dog Toto, is popular among collectors.



 Hollywood Walk of Fame

Judy Garland is one of the few stars to have been recognized on the Hollywood Walk of Fame with two stars; one for her contributions to American motion pictures and one for her contributions as a recording artist.



 The Judy Garland Rose

A new breed of roses was introduced in 1991, dedicated to Garland. The rose is still available (as of 2006).




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Always highly charged and acutely sensitive, Garland frequently sought refuge in the form of alcohol and prescription drugs. Historians generally agree that she was first introduced to the pills, or more specifically, to amphetamines, at MGM during the filming of The Wizard of Oz, where the substance was used to provide the extra energy needed to cope with the lengthy and exhausting movie-making process, as well as a way of helping curb the appetite of the teenager. [6] These drugs eventually helped to destroy Garland; since she was twelve years old, Garland had relied on prescription pills to get her through the day. It was her addiction to these pills that eventually killed her, accidentally or otherwise.


Constantly self-conscious of her image, Garland felt unattractive compared to other young stars, despite the fact that many people, both then and now, considered her to be one of the most beautiful actresses of all time. This self-loathing is demonstrated by Garland's admission that during the course of her entire career, encompassing many decades and hundreds of appearances, only on two films was she satisfied with her on-screen image: Meet Me in St. Louis and The Clock. Historians have identified these insecurities as being significant, in terms of perpetuating her life-long struggle with substance abuse.


Although her MGM-sponsored[citation needed] stimulant use did prove to be an exceptionally effective way to both reduce her weight and increase her energy, it created some problems of its own. In addition to carrying a large potential for addiction, the harsh amphetamine stimulation (if left untreated) can cause severe insomnia. Thus, it necessitates nightly use of high dosages barbiturates - another highly addictive class of drugs - for sleep. While MGM undoubtedly "created" the problem[citation needed], Garland perpetuated it; adopting her new drug habits and independently acquiring her own medications. As a result, her weight fluctuated noticeably during her tenure with MGM.


For intermittent periods during her life, Garland attempted detoxification at a private hospital or sanitarium, but these "clean" periods were short-lived. Her drug use progressively became all-consuming, right up through the moment of her passing, similar to that of Elvis Presley or Marilyn Monroe. Eventually, her tolerances grew so astronomically large, the effects of the drugs became paradoxical, eventually working in reverse; amphetamines, which at one point worked so well as a diet aid, began to increase her appetite, or barbiturates, which, not so long ago, did such a spectacular job of rendering her completely unconscious, began to actually increase her wakefulness, and so on.[citation needed]



 Legacy in gay rights

During her life Garland was considered a gay icon;[7]. She always attracted a large base of fans in the gay community. During a press conference in San Francisco in the 1960s, a reporter asked Garland if she was aware of her loyal gay following. "I couldn't care less," she said. "I sing to people."[8]


On the evening of her funeral (June 27, 1969), gay men fought back against police during a routine raid at the Stonewall Inn, a gay bar in Greenwich Village, which set off the gay liberation movement. Since then, Gay Pride events during the month of June have commemorated the Stonewall riots.[9]


Although Garland's death is often noted as a cause of one of the key events of the modern gay rights movement, it is more likely a coincidence (see also Friends of Dorothy). Nevertheless, Garland's death, funeral and its links (coincidental or not) to Stonewall have become a part of LGBT history and lore [10] and her status as a Gay Icon is retained in the company of current celebrities such as: Madonna, Kylie Minogue, Cher, Shirley Bassey, Mariah Carey, Bette Midler and her eldest daughter Liza Minnelli.



 Continuing Legacy

Garland's legacy is alive in her two performing daughters and in her two grandchildren: Lorna Luft's son Jesse, born in 1984 and daughter Vanessa, born in 1990.


In the decades following her death, Garland's fame and star power has persisted; resulting in biopics such as Rainbow (1978) and Life with Judy Garland: Me and My Shadows [11] (2001) (based on her daughter Lorna's memoirs). Garland was portrayed in the former by Andrea McArdle and in the latter by both Tammy Blanchard and Judy Davis (who both won Emmys for their roles).


It was reported during the late 1990's that Annette Bening was trying to get a film made about Garland's later years titled "Rainbow's End [12]." However, due to the production of Me and My Shadows, Bening's project never came to fruition.


The film Little Voice (1998) starring Jane Horrocks, Ewan McGregor and Michael Caine featured Horrocks imitating Garland as an integral part of the plot.


In 1999, the American Film Institute honored her in their broadcast of American Film Institute's 50 Greatest Screen Legends in which they ranked her #8 of all time greatest actresses.


In 2003 she was portrayed by Isabel Keating in the Tony winning Australian Broadway production of The Boy From Oz starring Hugh Jackman as Peter Allen and Stephanie J. Block as Liza Minnelli.


In 2004, Garland was the subject of a two-hour documentary, "Judy Garland: By Myself", aired as part of the PBS American Masters series. The episode includes rare concert footage (taken from various audience home movie cameras), family home movies, performances from The Judy Garland Show, and audio recollections from friends including Mickey Rooney, Ann Miller and June Allyson (all taken from previous documentaries).


In 2005 singer-actress Linda Eder recorded an album as a tribute to Garland, entitled By Myself: The Songs of Judy Garland. The same year, singer Caroline O'Connor portrayed Garland in the Australian play End of The Rainbow. The play charted the final months of Judy's life and featured some of her most memorable songs. The following year, actress Adrienne Barbeau brought the play to a successful Off-Broadway run, this time under the title The Property Known As Garland. Judy is the subject of O'Connor's fourth studio album, A Tribute to Garland and she is to reprise the role at the 2006 Edinburgh Festival.


Later that year, 24-year old anonymous writer-performer Billyboy launched a podcast tribute to Garland, entitled The Entertainment Beat with Frances Gumm [13].


In 2006 Rufus Wainwright also paid tribute to Garland by recreating her 1961 Carnegie Hall concert. There were mixed reactions from both critics and Garland fans. Sarah Jessica Parker, John Waters, and Lorna Luft were among those in attendance.


Andrew Lloyd Webber based the "Final Broadcast" reprise of "Don't Cry for Me Argentina" from Evita on an unsuccessful Garland performance at London's Talk of the Town nightclub in 1969.[14].


September 2006 Garland was named 2nd Greatest Starlet in a Yahoo movie poll in between Kiera Knightly, in 1st place and Scarlett Johannson in 3rd place [15]


Female singers to list Garland as a major influence in their career include Barbra Streisand, Aretha Franklin, Bette Midler, Shirley Bassey, Linda Eder, Mireille Mathieu, Cyndi Lauper, Sarah McLachlan, Natalie Merchant, Tori Amos, Melissa Manchester, Jane Horrocks, Maura O'Connell and Christina Aguilera. Male singers to name Garland as an inspiration include Tony Bennett, Rufus Wainwright, and Michael Jackson.



 Collectibles / Image

Judy Garland’s image has remained popular over the years and has been marketed widely and featured on various collectibles including dolls, limited edition plates, porcelain figurines, toys, clothes, handbags, jewellery, Christmas ornaments, stamps, greeting cards, books, advertisements and art.


The first Judy Garland dolls were introduced in 1939 by Ideal Toy Company, it featured Garland as Dorothy [16] , and the second doll was Judy Garland Teenager [17] issued in 1940. These dolls were promoted by Garland and rivalled Shirley Temple dolls in popularity. From that time Garland has been a popular image for major doll manufactures including Madame Alexander, Effanbee [18], Mattel [19] , Franklin Mint [20] , World Doll [21] , Mary Kay Dolls and Peggy Nesbitt Dolls. These dolls are popular among collectors and the early Ideal dolls can fetch a high price when coming on the market. The materials used for production range from composition (a mixture of sawdust and glue) and human hair wigs (the Ideal dolls), to vinyl and fine porcelain on the modern dolls.


During the 1940s Garland's image was used to endorse Max Factor beauty products [22].


in 1968 she was featured by Blackglama furs in the "What Becomes a Legend Most?" advertising campaign and this image became the basis for artist Andy Warhol's portrait [23].


In 1999 Clinique used Garland's voice singing her famous "Get Happy" to launch the new designer perfume named 'Happy'.


In May 2000, a pair of Ruby Slippers worn by Garland in The Wizard of Oz achieved $666,000 when auctioned by Christies [24]


On New Year's 2004 M&M candies released an advertisement featuring Garland in the final scenes from Oz interacting with the M&Ms. [25].


In 2005 the blue and white gingham dress worn by Garland in The Wizard of Oz sold at auction for $252,000 [26]


Image in Art


Garland has been the subject of numerous artists such as: Andy Warhol, Sueo Serisawa[11] and Norman Rockwell who painted a portrait of Judy Garland as Dorothy in "The Wizard of Oz" shortly after her death in 1969. This portrait is now in the collection of the Motion Picture & Television Country House and Hospital (It was reproduced once in the Des Moines Sunday Register on March l5th, l970). Other noted artists to paint Garland include: Brooklyn born artist Roberto Gari whose portrait of her hung in the lobby of New York's Palace Theatre for many years after her death as a tribute to Garland but is now part of the Museum of the City of New York's collection [27]. American caricaturist, Al Hirschfeld produced several black & white caricature images of Garland most notably featuring her image from her signature "Get Happy" number [28] and also from Meet Me in St. Louis. In September 2006 British graffiti artist Banksy featured an image of Garland in his exhibition entitled Barely Legal in Los Angeles [29].




Judy Garland was photographed by the top photographers of the time including: Richard Avedon, Francesco Scavullo, Terry O'Neill, George Hurrell [30], Bob Willoughby (who was responsible for her second Life magazine cover in 1954)[31], Milton H. Greene [32], Douglas Kirkland and Anthony Armstrong Jones among others.



 Songs Written About Judy Garland

1969 - "Judy" by Mickey Rooney


1976 - "Quiet Please There's a Lady on Stage" by Peter Allen


1984 - "Judy Do" by Thompson Twins


1987 - "Saint Judy" by Marc Almond


1986 - "Heart on Demand" by John Gorka


1992 - "Lament for Judy Garland" by Mickey MacConnell


2005 - "The Rainbow's End" by Linda Eder


2005 - "Judy Garland" by Pete Chambers


She is mentioned in the songs:


"A Room at the Heartbreak Hotel" by U2

"Asphalt Beach" by Briskeby

"Happy Phantom" by Tori Amos

"Dorothy's Last Fling" by Chainsaw Kittens

Her voice was sampled in the Scissor Sisters song "The Other Side" [33]




Of Garland's five marriages, the first four ended in divorce. Her children are Liza Minnelli (now a legendary singer and actress in her own right) born March 1946, Lorna Luft (also an acclaimed singer), and Joey Luft (a scenic photographer, born March 29, 1955 in Los Angeles, California).


David Rose (1910-1990); married 1941-1945

Vincente Minnelli (1903-1986); married 1945-1952; one daughter, Liza Minnelli

Sidney Luft (1915-2005); married 1952-1965; one daughter, Lorna Luft, and one son, Joey Luft

Mark Herron (1928-1996); married 1965-1967

Mickey Deans (1934-2003); married March 1969-June 1969



The Big Revue (1929) (short subject)

A Holiday in Storyland (1930) (short subject)

Bubbles (1930) (short subject)

The Wedding of Jack and Jill (1930) (short subject)

La Fiesta de Santa Barbara (1935) (short subject)

Every Sunday (1936) (short subject)

Pigskin Parade (1936)

Broadway Melody of 1938 (1937)

Thoroughbreds Don't Cry (1937)

MGM Christmas Trailer (1937) (short subject)

Everybody Sing (1938)

Love Finds Andy Hardy (1938)

Hollywood Goes to Town (1938) (short subject)

Listen, Darling (1938)

The Wizard of Oz (1939)

Babes in Arms (1939)

If I Forget You (1940) (short subject)

Andy Hardy Meets Debutante (1940)

Strike Up the Band (1940)

Little Nellie Kelly (1940)

Ziegfeld Girl (1941)

Life Begins for Andy Hardy (1941)

Babes on Broadway (1941)

 We Must Have Music (1942) (short subject)

For Me and My Gal (1942)

Strictly G.I. (1943) (short subject)

Presenting Lily Mars (1943)

Thousands Cheer (1943)

Girl Crazy (1943)

Meet Me in St. Louis (1944)

The Clock (1945)

The Harvey Girls (1946)

Ziegfeld Follies (1946)

Till the Clouds Roll By (1946)

The Pirate (1947)

Easter Parade (1948)

Words and Music (1948)

In the Good Old Summertime (1949)

Summer Stock (1950)

A Star is Born (1954)

Pepe (1960) (Cameo) (voice only)

Judgment at Nuremberg (1961)

Gay Purr-ee (1962) (voice)

A Child Is Waiting (1963)

I Could Go On Singing (1963)




 Unfinished Films

Throughout the latter part of her career, Garland's increasing addiction to prescription drugs led to her being fired from several films:


The Barkleys of Broadway (1949)

Annie Get Your Gun (1950)

Royal Wedding (1951)

Valley Of The Dolls (1967)

Garland was also considered to play a part in other films including:


The Razor's Edge (1946)

Romance on the High Seas (1948)

Show Boat (1951)

Carousel (1956)

The Helen Morgan Story (1957)

The Three Faces of Eve (1957)

South Pacific (1958)

Gypsy (1962)

Irma la Douce (1963)

It's a Mad Mad Mad Mad World (1963)

The Unsinkable Molly Brown (1964)

Harlow (1965)

The Graduate (1967)


 Legendary Concerts

Date Location Important Notes

July 1, 1943 Philadelphia Gives first solo concert at the Robin Hood Dell. Andre Kostelanetz conducts the orchestra.

April 9, 1951 London Judy opens her new show at the London Palladium. The show is performed twice nightly with Wednesday & Saturday matinees.

July 1, 1951 Dublin Performs in Ireland at the Theatre Royal, Dublin for 14 sold-out performances where her show was performed for 50,000 people which was unprecedented for the time. Upon arrival in Dublin she was met by huge crowds which she sang to from her dressing room window;[12] .

October 16, 1951 New York City The legendary Palace Theater opening - the show will run for 19 weeks and breaks all box office records. She returns from 11/16/51 - 2/24/52.

May 11, 1959 New York City Opened at the Metropolitan Opera House, Lincoln Centre in New York for a 7 night run [34].

October 28, 1960 Paris Concert at the famed Olympia the venue is identified with the career of Edith Piaf

October 1960 Amsterdam The concert was broadcast live on European radio and is considered to be on a par with Carnegie Hall the follwing year.

April 23, 1961 New York City The legendary concert at Carnegie Hall.

September, 16 1961 Los Angeles, CA Hollywood Bowl 1 night only pouring rain 20,000 people [35]

June, 1964 Sydney/Melbourne Perhaps Garland's most unsuccessful tour, and caused much controversy. Her tour in Melbourne only lasted 21 minuets.

November 9, 1964 London London Palladium with daughter Liza Minnelli for a one-off event for ITV. The concert was recorded and released as a 2 record album by Capitol Records

July 31, 1967 New York City Return to the Palace Theatre for a 4 week sold out run

August 31, 1967 Boston Largest audience; over 100,000 people attended her free outdoor concert on the Boston Common.

March 25, 1969 Copenhagen Final concert at The Falkoner Centre in Copenhagen, Denmark.




Although she had recorded scores of singles of her hit songs for Decca Records since the mid-1930s, Garland began recording albums for Capitol Records in the 1950s. Her first album reached number 3 on the Billboard 200 and was very successful. Judy at Carnegie Hall charted for 73 weeks on the Billboard chart (including 13 weeks at number one), was certified gold, and took home five Grammy Awards (including Album of the Year and Best Female Vocal Performance). Many regard Garland's Capitol recordings as her best vocal work. Capitol Records has recently re-released many of the albums on CD and they have proven to be a popular item for many a Garland fan.


1955 Miss Show Business

1956 Judy

1957 Alone

1958 Judy In Love

1959 Garland at the Grove

1959 The Letter

1960 Judy: That's Entertainment!

 1961 Judy at Carnegie Hall

1962 The Garland Touch

1963 I Could Go On Singing (Soundtrack)

1964 Judy and Liza 'Live' at the London Palladium

1964 Judy Garland Sings Maggie May (EP)

1967 At Home at the Palace (ABC-Paramount Records)




 Original Songs Introduced

1936 "Opera Vs. Jazz", Every Sunday

1939 "Over the Rainbow", The Wizard of Oz

1939 "Good Morning", Babes in Arms

1940 "Our Love Affair", Strike Up the Band

1940 "It's A Great Day for the Irish", Little Nellie Kelly

1941 "How About You", Babes on Broadway

1944 "The Trolley Song", Meet Me in St. Louis

1944 "The Boy Next Door", Meet Me in St. Louis

1944 "Have Yourself A Merry Little Christmas", Meet Me in St Louis

1946 "On the Atchison, Topeka and the Santa Fe", The Harvey Girls

1948 "Be a Clown", The Pirate

1948 "Mack the Black", The Pirate

1954 "The Man That Got Away", A Star is Born

1960 "The Far Away Part of Town, "Pepe" (it was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Original Song and was written by Andre Previn and Dory Langdon).

1963 "I Could Go On Singing", I Could Go On Singing



1986 America's Treasure

1987 The Best of Judy Garland

1990 The Best of the Decca Years Volume 1 - Hits!

1991 The Great MGM Stars: Judy Garland

1992 The Last Years 1965 - 1969: It's All for You

1993 The Ladies of the 20th Century: Judy Garland

1994 Legends: Judy Garland

1994 The Complete Decca Masters

1995 Great Ladies of Song: Spotlight on Judy Garland

1996 You Made Me Love You

1996 Collectors Gems from the MGM Films

1997 Judy Duets (re-released in 2005)

 1998 Judy: A Musical Anthology

1998 Judy Garland in Hollywood - Her Greatest Movie Hits

1999 The One and Only Judy Garland

1999 20th Century Masters - The Millennium Collection: The Best of Judy Garland

2001 Over the Rainbow: The Very Best of Judy Garland

2004 EMI Comedy: Judy Garland

2005 That Old Feeling: Classic Ballads From The Judy Garland Show

2006 Great Day! Rare Recordings From The Judy Garland Show

2006 The Essential Judy Garland



While Garland never appeared on stage as part of any professional theater production, she was considered for the following works:


As Fanny Brice in Funny Girl - turned down

As Mame Dennis in Mame - passed over due to work unreliability


Being a natural raconteur, Garland supplied some of her own embellished stories, which have passed on into mythic status, most of them circulating around her experiences filming The Wizard of Oz.


Some notable anecdotes that Garland embellished which have found their way into mythic status include:[citation needed]


The Garland told tale of her three costars in The Wizard of Oz crowding her out as they danced down the yellow brick road[citation needed].


  1. ^ 1946-1950 Timelines, The Judy Room (Accessed June 30, 2006)

  2. ^ Frank, Gerold, Judy, ISBN 0-306-80894-3

  3. ^ Piro, Rita, Judy Garland: The Golden Years, ISBN 0-9706261-7-7

  4. ^ Luft, Lorna, Me and My Shadows: A Family Memoir, 1998, Simon and Schuster, ISBN 0-283-06320-3 (1999, Pocket Books paperback edition, ISBN 0-671-01900-7) -->

  5. ^ Press Release, The 2006 Commemorative Stamp Program, November 30, 2005, United States Postal Service

  6. ^ Wiki Article on Amphetamines, {http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amphetamines#Physical_effects}

  7. ^ Haggerty, George E., Gay Histories and Cultures, 2000, Garland, ISBN 0-8153-1880-4

  8. ^ Braun, Eric, Frightening the Horses: Gay Icons of the Cinema, 2002, Reynolds & Hearn, ISBN 1-903111-10-2

  9. ^ History of Gay and Lesbian Pride Month, National Women's History Project, (accessed June 13 2006)

  10. ^ Bianco, David, Stonewall Riots, 1995-2006, PlanetOut

  11. ^ Piro, Rita, Judy Garland: The Golden Years, ISBN 0-9706261-7-7

  12. ^ Frank, Gerold, Judy, ISBN 0-306-80894-3


Judy, Gerold Frank, Harper & Row, 1975

Judy: Portrait of an American Legend, Thomas J. Watson and Bill Chapman, McGraw-Hill Book Comapny, 1986

Judy, With Love, Lorna Smith, Robert Hale and Co., 1975

Judy Garland: A Portrait in Art & Anecdote, John Fricke, Bullfinch, 2003

Judy Garland: World's Greatest Entertainer, John Fricke, Henry Holt & Co., 1992

Little Girl Lost: The Life and Hard Times of Judy Garland, Al DiOrio, Jr., Arlington House, 1973

Me and My Shadows: A Family Memoir, Lorna Luft, Simon and Schuster, 1988

Rainbow: The Stormy Life of Judy Garland, Christopher Finch, Ballantine, 1976

Rainbow's End: The Judy Garland Show, Coyne Steven Sanders, William Morrow & Co., 1990

Young Judy, David Dahl and Barry Kehoe, Mason/Charter, 1975

Judy Garland, The Golden Years, Rito Piro, Great Feats Press, 2001

Some Are Born Great , Adela Rogers St. Johns 1974 New York, Doubleday & Company, Inc., (includes chapter on Garland)

Get Happy (2003) By Gerald Clarke

Judy Garland, The Secret Life of a Legend , David Shipman, Little Brown and Company, 1993

 Further reading

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:

Judy GarlandJudy: The Complete Films and Career of Judy Garland, Joe Morella and Edward Epstein, Citadel Press, 1969

The Judy Garland Collector's Guide: An Unauthorized Reference and Price Guide, Edward R. Pardella, Schiffer Publishing, 1999

The Judy Garland Souvenir Songbook, Howard Harnne, Chappel & Co./Hal Leonard Publishing, 1975

The Wizard of Oz: The Official 50th Anniversary Pictorial History, John Fricke, Jay Scarfone and William Stillman, Warner Books, 1989

Judy Garland and the Cold War, James Simmons, Blackstaff Press, Belfast, 1976 ISBN 0-85640-106-4, Book of poetry; includes two poems about Judy: "In Memoriam: Judy Garland" and "Judy Garland and the Cold War".

The Encyclopedia of the Irish in America, Michael Glazier, University of Notre Dame Press , 1999, ISBN 0-268-02755-2 contains information on Garland's family.

Still Irish: a Century of Irish in film, Kevin Rockett and Eugene Finn, Dublin Red Mountain Press, 1995 ISBN 1-900361-00-0. contains analysis of Garland's impact and persona as well as many photographs during her Hollywood career.

Women of Our Time: An Album of Twentieth-Century Photographs, Frederick Voss (Editor), National Portrait Gallery (Smithsonian Institution) ISBN 1-85894-169-5.




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URL of Original Article: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judy_Garland

Date Article Copied: December 2006

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